writing reform movements

writing reform movements
Movements in the twentieth century aiming to modernize China and to increase literacy have frequently focused their attention on China’s writing system. There have been three principal means by which writing reform has been approached: closer approximation of writing to the spoken language (in the May Fourth Movement of 1919), replacement of characters by roman letters (pinyin), and simplification of the existing script. Replacement has died away as a plausible mechanism, and simplification is less politically significant in the early twenty-first century than it was in the mid twentieth. Two lists of simplified characters were instituted in the PRC, one in 1955 and one in 1977. These often involved using popular handwritten abbreviations for characters, replacing complex components with simpler forms, or mandating a simplification. These simpler forms have become standard in the PRC and Singapore. Hong Kong and Taiwan do not use them.
(Some forms are recognizable in Japan, though not most.) Even in the PRC in the 1990s some traditional characters have been brought back in, used on signs, on name cards and in books published in classical Chinese. Computers can easily use characters, though input is often in roman script. Support for eradication of characters has slipped quietly away.
DeFrancis, John (1950). Nationalism and Language Reform in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
——(1984). The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Seybolt, Peter J. and Chiang, Gregory Kuei-ke (eds) (1979). Language Reform in China: Documents and Commentary. White Plains, New York: M.E.Sharpe.

Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese culture. . 2011.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • writing systems — Chinese characters (sinographs, logographs), have a known history of approximately 3,200 years, with the earliest forms visible on the so called oracle bones used by Shang diviners to query the future. At origin somewhat pictographic, this aspect …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • REFORM JUDAISM — REFORM JUDAISM, first of the modern interpretations of Judaism to emerge in response to the changed political and cultural conditions brought about by the emancipation . The Reform movement was a bold historical response to the dramatic events of …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LGBT social movements — Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality and transgenderism. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have a long history of campaigning for what is …   Wikipedia

  • Cults and new religious movements in literature and popular culture — New religious movements and cults can appear as themes or subjects in literature and popular culture, while notable representatives of such groups have produced, for their own part, a large body of literary works. Contents 1 Terminology 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Japanese writing system — Infobox Writing system name=Japanese languages=Japanese language type = Alternative typedesc = utilizes both Logographic (Kanji) and Syllabic (Hiragana, Katakana) characters time = 4th century AD to present fam1=Chinese fam2=Oracle Bone Script… …   Wikipedia

  • Intellectual movements in Iran — involve the Iranian experience of modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures that have been changing since the 19th century. History of Iranian modernity Long before the European Renaissance generated… …   Wikipedia

  • The Age of Reform — is a 1955 Pulitzer Prize winning book by Richard Hofstadter. The book is an American history that traces events from the Populist Movement of the 1890s through the Progressive Era ending with the New Deal in the 1930s. The Age of Reform stands… …   Wikipedia

  • English spelling reform — is the collective term for various campaigns and efforts to change the spelling of the English language to make it simpler and more rationally consistent. There exists a small scale movement among amateur and professional linguists, but one with… …   Wikipedia

  • simplified characters — (jiantizi) Chinese characters have been evolving throughout recorded history, roughly from the ‘oracle bone script’ (jiaguwen), through the ‘great seal script’ (daz huan), ‘small seal script’ (xiaozhuan), and ‘clerks’ script characters’ (lishu),… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • Europe, history of — Introduction       history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”